A fascinating consequence of strong electron correlations is the emergence of a wide range of quantum phases in transition metal oxides. For example, SrTiO3 (STO), a band insulator, can become a superconductor when doped with oxygen vacancies, Nb or La. The discovery of superconductivity in STO more than 50 years ago has served as inspiration for the subsequent development of cuprate high-Tc superconductors. Yet, the details of superconductivity in STO remain largely unknown to date. Moreover, interfaces between STO and polar complex oxides give rise to further emergent properties. The canonical example is the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface, which hosts an ultra-high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with properties ranging from magnetism to large tunable spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and robust superconductivity, although both constituent oxides are band insulators.
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